华东师范大学(哲学社会科学版) ›› 2011, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 144-149.doi:

• 语言研究 • 上一篇    

指令类言语行为构成的重新分析

樊小玲   

  1. 华东师范大学 对外汉语学院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:1900-01-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 樊小玲

A Study on Constitutions of the Chinese Directive Speech Act

Fan Xiao-ling   

  1. International College of Chinese Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:1900-01-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-01-25
  • Contact: Fan Xiao-ling

摘要: 指令类言语行为是言语行为中非常重要的一大类别,但学术界对指令类言语行为的研究还存在很多不足。对指令类言语行为的研究应该从它与非指令类言语行为的区别性要素开始,指令类言语行为和非指令类言语行为具有三个区别性要素:意图要素、事件状态、和主体关系。同时,指令有各种具体形式,决定指令行为内部差异的最重要的参数是对“话语权”的强调,即指令行为发出者对“话语权”强调程度的差异在话语层面会显示为不同的指令形式:强调自身的话语权力和权势的指令形式,强调对方的话语权力和权势的指令形式和模糊双方的话语权力和权势的指令形式。在指令度上,指令类言语行为可以分为强指令、一般指令和弱指令三类,而指令度的强弱和直接指令行为与间接指令行为并无绝对关系,以威胁形式出现的间接指令的强度远远强于直接指令。

关键词: 指令类言语行为, 区别性要素, 分类依据, 指令度

Abstract: The directive speech act is very important in a speech act. Finding its distinctive elements is the most important thing. There are three distinctive elements between directive speech act and non-directive speech act: intention, state and relationship of the speaker and listener. Meanwhile the forms of a directive speech act depend on how to handle the “discourse power”: stressing the speaker’s discourse power, stressing the listener’s discourse power or suspending the discourse power. There are different levels in the illocutionary force of a directive speech act, and the force level is not relevant to whether the directive speech is direct or not. An indirect directive act in a threat form is much stronger than a direct directive act.

Key words: directive speech act, constitutional parameter, constitutional rule