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15 May 2024, Volume 56 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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Keeping Integrity and Innovation:The Development of Cultural Heritage Theory in the New Era
Lizhi Huang
2024, 56 (3):  1-10.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.001
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (646KB) ( 9 )  

In the time relation of culture, the fulcrum of Xi Jinping’s thought on culture is “keeping integrity and innovation”. Only with right integrity and innovation, cultural self-confidence can be fully conscious. From oral transmission in family and society to simple transmission of aesthetic symbols, cultural inheritance is unconscious when it originates from the initial historical stage of cultural development. Marx’s theory of cultural inheritance overly emphasizes that cultural traditions break down with the rupture of social and economic foundations. Although his cultural policies protected traditional culture, Lenin did not believe in the existence of a unified national culture in theory. Influenced by the New Culture Movement, Mao Zedong criticized traditional culture and then formed a clear theoretical expression, namely “critical inheritance”. In the new era, the cultural image of China has become a prominent problem to be solved urgently with its rise. Xi Jinping’s thought on culture conforms to the needs of the times. On the one hand, the idea of “keeping integrity and innovation” confirms the conscious inheritance of tradition, and acknowledges that cultural confidence is higher than political and theoretical confidence; on the other hand, it replaces “critical inheritance” with a clear value of “keeping integrity”, and then explicitly proposes to innovate the modern civilization of the Chinese nation, inheriting the innovative spirit of the New Culture Movement.

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The Theoretical Innovations and Its Significance of Xi Jinping’s Thought on Culture
Guangfeng Liu
2024, 56 (3):  11-18.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.002
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (565KB) ( 4 )  

The theoretical innovations of Xi Jinping’s thought on culture have long been scattered in the series of important speeches, instructions, comments and writings made by General Secretary Xi Jinping around the issue of building new era culture. Xi Jinping’s thought on culture has made significant innovations in the fields of cultural leadership, cultural position, cultural confidence, cultural talent cultivation, network culture construction, cultural publicity of the Party, cultural undertakings, the development of cultural industry and the construction of a strong sense of Chinese nation community, putting forward a series of new insights and new ideas with Chinese characteristics and the spirit of the times. The formation of Xi Jinping’s thought on culture marks a new understanding of the Party’s culture, socialist culture and human culture, and opens up a new realm of cultural cognition, which is an important milestone for shaping the Party’s image, consolidating the ideological foundation of the Party’s rule, promoting the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and constructing a community of shared future for mankind.

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The Factual Turn and the Foundation of Reasons
Jiaming Chen
2024, 56 (3):  19-28.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.003
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (603KB) ( 5 )  

A trend that has emerged in British and American epistemology recently is the so-called “factual turn”, which is directly against internalism. The emergence of this turn has been attributed to the influences from the following three aspects: McDowell’s disjunctivism, Williamson’s Knowledge and Its Limits, whose essential idea of “knowledge first” means resorting to factuality, and Dancy’s “practical realism” in which only facts can be good reasons for action or belief. This article raises the following objections to the factual turn. First, in the era of scientific creation today, the ways of knowing that highlight imagination and construction are supposed to be more in line with the needs of the times. Second, Williamson’s statement of only believing what you know is an idealization. In effect, when having insufficient knowledge, we often can only believe first and then further look for evidence to confirm. Third, as far as the relationship between knowledge and facts is concerned, facts alone are not enough, as they need to be explained and grasped. Fourth, Williamson’s theory of “evidence equals knowledge (E=K)” may encounter challenges.

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On the Norms of Human Inference:C. S. Peirce and Contemporary Logic
Liuhua ZHANG
2024, 56 (3):  29-42.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.004
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (709KB) ( 5 )  

How to differentiate between good and bad inferences has long been a central concern within the discipline of logic. In contrast to contemporary scholars who tend to adopt the inference rules or logical truths found in logic textbooks as normative guidelines for human inference, C. S. Peirce’s philosophical framework has two distinct characteristics: (1) the assessment of the validity of inferential practices must consistently align with the pursuit of truth-seeking goals, involving a scrutiny of the reasoning methodologies according to their professed adherence to specific patterns of reasoning; (2) the defense of normative standards for inference necessitates a transition from logic to other normative disciplines, such as ethics, signaling the inability of logic to take care of itself. These represent the basic commitments of Peirce’s logic as a normative theory of inference, and it is due to these commitments that Peirce successfully circumvents the inherent challenges posed by the problem of “theory choice” in contemporary philosophy of logic.

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A Historical Aesthetic Analysis of the Opposition between History and Poetry:A Comparative Examination of the Chinese and the Western Theories of History
Xinsheng Lu
2024, 56 (3):  43-55.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.005
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (853KB) ( 8 )  

Aristotle’s famous “opposition between history and poetry” in Poetics has a far-reaching influence on the preconception of history. Influenced by this conception, Hegel and Schopenhauer contrast historiography with poetics. Hegel denies that history can understand the internal relations and essence of things, while Schopenhauer belittles the inherent truth of history. However, the “opposition between history and poetry” is contrary to the cultural tradition of ancient Greece, and Hegel and Schopenhauer unconsciously have “historical aesthetic” insights into the relationship between history and poetry in their discussions. In China’s traditional theories of history put forward by scholars such as Liu Zhiji, Qian Qianyi, and Zhang Xuecheng, there are a large number of arguments about the close connection between history and poetry, which is not only a theoretical summary of traditional historiographic practice but also a significant inspiration for modern historians to reevaluate history.

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A New Way to Destroy a State” and Modern Chinese Intellectuals’ Reflections on the World Situation
Rui Wang
2024, 56 (3):  56-68.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.006
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (878KB) ( 12 )  

In his “On a New Way to Destroy a State”, Liang Qichao recounts the history of the ruin of Egypt, India, Poland, Boer, the Philippines and others to demonstrate that the modern colonial expansion of the Western powers have long been no longer limited to the traditional siege of cities and territories, but made full use of financial, educational and other means to control non-Western countries. In the statement of “a new way to destroy a state”, “to destroy a state” is impressive, because those who care about the fate of China have always been worried about the possibility of the partition of China and its being destroyed since the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. In addition, the statement of “A New Way to Destroy a State” is emphasizing “new”, that is, the new means and strategies of colonial expansion of modern powers. By virtue of the great influence of its initiator Liang Qichao in the public opinion, and its close connection with the issue of imperialism, “a new way to destroy a state” gradually became a popular concept to analyze the world situation and China’s crisis. It was either directly used, or slightly modified and re-circulated in a more popular form, or taken as theoretical ground. The borrowing and application of “a new way to destroy a state” continued from the late Qing Dynasty to the 1930s.

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A New Interpretation of the Relationship Patterns of Basic Sentence Types
Jue Wang
2024, 56 (3):  69-82.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.007
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1014KB) ( 8 )  

The academic circle has proposed four categories and eight patterns to interpret the relationship between the four basic sentence types, that is, declarative sentences, exclamatory sentences, interrogative sentences and imperative sentences. This paper suggests that the relationship pattern of “declarative sentences and exclamatory sentences vs. interrogative sentences and imperative sentences” is an interactive “weak- strong” one, providing supplementary arguments from the following three aspects: (1) a new examination of existing sentence type markers; (2) the intonation system and its division of work; (3) the co-occurrence between intonations and modal particles. It shows that Chinese sentence type markers generally form a mutually exclusive system of alternatives, in which each sentence marker can be assigned to a type, and no sentence marker is a member of more than one types. Therefore, the four sentence types of the two categories in the interactive “weak- strong” relationship pattern have their respective syntactic forms, which shows that this pattern can be regarded as the best relationship pattern of Chinese sentence types.

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Westerners’ Chinese Textbooks and the Linguistic Reform in the Late Qing Dynasty:A Case Study of The Chinese Speaker:Readings in Modern Mandarin by Evan Morgan
Yuan Feng
2024, 56 (3):  83-92.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.008
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (726KB) ( 4 )  

Evan Morgan’s The Chinese Speaker: Readings in Modern Mandarin is an important case for us to reexamine the relationship between Westerners’ Chinese practice and Chinese Phoneticization Movement in the Late Qing Dynasty. The Chinese Speaker shows Morgan’s appreciation of Dai Dong’s The Six Scripts and his views of Chinese characters, absorbing his linguistic method of “seeking meanings through sounds”. The concept of “modern mandarin” proposed by Morgan elevated the social level of the target audience, emphasized its significance to China’s social revolution, and effectively explored the formation of a normal national language in terms of concept construction, value enhancement and teaching practice. The Chinese Phoneticization Movement led by Lao Naixuan and his related propositions were also echoed and developed in The Chinese Speaker.

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Becoming a Sutra of The Sixth Patriarch Platform Sutra and the Innovation of Chan’s Concept of Classics
Kai SHENG
2024, 56 (3):  93-101.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.009
Abstract ( 19 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (866KB) ( 9 )  

The formation of The Sixth Patriarch Platform Sutra was a process of continuous supplement, and its editorial style was modeled on translated Buddhist sutras. However, at the very beginning when it was called “Platform Sutra”, Huineng might have borrowed the name from the Buddhist and Taoist ritual texts in the Tang Dynasty. Teaching the non-phase precepts and preaching dharma are two different religious practices, since the former is characterized by internal transmission while the latter by publicity. Hence, there are two different titles of The Platform Sutra, that is, The Sixth Patriarch’s Dharma Treasure, and The Platform Sutra of Preaching Dharma. After The Platform Sutra was called as a “sutra”, Huineng and Shenhui used the it to comprehend preaching dharma, realizing true dharma, and the transmission from the master to disciples. Shenhui’s disciples were criticized by the Buddhist community because they used the “secret book” of registration to maintain the internal transmission of The Platform Sutra. The fact that The Platform Sutra’s becoming a “sutra” is one of the most significant events in the Sinicization of Buddhism, and it is also an iconic event in the southern turn of Chinese Buddhism as well as in the transformation from the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty.

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The Dao of Thoughtlessness:The Original Essence of Chinese Chan and the Secret of the Chan-enlightenment
Mingdong Gu
2024, 56 (3):  102-113.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.010
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (774KB) ( 5 )  

Chan Buddhism occupies a unique position in the intellectual history of the world, and its originality comes from Huineng’s Platform Sutra. However, there seems to have been a trend in the development of Chan Buddhism, which is characterized by a significant reduction of Huineng’s originality and an institutional effort to attribute Huineng’s Chan to Chinese Buddhism. Hence, it is necessary to trace back to the origin of Huineng’s Chan and restore its revolutionary feature. Adopting an approach that integrates historical research with psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy, this paper closely examines Huineng’s interpretation of The Diamond Sutra and his innovative ideas and methods of cultivation in the Dunhuang version of The Platform Sutra in comparison with Laozi and Zhuangzi’ Daoism so as to discover the originality and universal appeal of Chan and the secret of Chan-enlightenment. It concludes that Chan, whose essence lies in thoughtlessness, is originated from Daoist Nothingness rather than Buddhist Emptiness, and Chan-enlightenment is not Buddhist satori.

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Modernization with Chinese Characteristics in Urban Community Governance:Theoretical Logic,Model Transformation and Future Trend
Wei Xu, Bowei Liu
2024, 56 (3):  114-124.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.011
Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (611KB) ( 7 )  

Under the context of modernization with Chinese characteristics, the community ushers in a new stage of development and change with “the last one kilometer” policy. The model of community governance has also realized the transformation from “governance by community” to “governance in community” at the micro level. The model of “governance by community” with the main feature of the “interconnection of three social organizations” integrates community autonomy and social power, and revitalizes community social resources in the new era of community development. However, it also shows its shortcomings in terms of work ability and undertaking ability. Therefore, under the new situation, we should play the field role of “governance in community”, which is characterized by multiple elements’ participating in governance and fine management, and then explore the future trend of modernization with Chinese characteristics in urban community governance. To realize the transformation and upgrading of the community governance model from “governance by community” to “governance in community”, it is necessary to take the guidance in Party building as the fundamental guarantee, take the people-centered as the basic compliance, take the resilient governance community as the best path, and take digital and intelligent governance technology as the important way. We will continue to improve the urban governance community model of people, modernity and sociality and ultimately realize modernization with Chinese characteristics in urban community governance according to China’s own situation.

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On the Joint Mechanism of Political and Social Forces Supporting the Family with De Facto Unsupported Children:A Case Study of Shanghai
Shanshan HE, Yihua CHEN, Shumiao ZHANG
2024, 56 (3):  125-137.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.012
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1092KB) ( 4 )  

As the child protection function of modern families tends to weaken or even disappear, this paper focuses on how local government and social forces can carry out joint service and optimize the path of future synergy in the provision of welfare for the families with de facto unsupported children. Through the analysis of relevant policy documents, participation observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews in the implementation of the policy to sum up the local assistance experience, the ecological system of care services for the families with de facto unsupported children is comprehensively sorted out from the perspective of ecological niche theory. This shows that the three main welfare supplying bodies, namely, government departments, group organizations, and social organizations, constitute the three main lines of the ecological chain, absorbing all kinds of social resources and transforming them into social services through two upward and downward linkage paths, namely, “cooperation between the government and society” and “synergy between the government and society”. Among them, professional social organizations are in the key ecological position, being the central core of various kinds of linkage work. Reporting is a core part of the linkage work, but further optimization of the collaboration mechanism is still needed. In the future, it will be necessary to strengthen the cultivation and development of professional social organizations, implement family empowerment services, manage ethical risks, promote the orderly linkage of social forces and the extensive incorporation of social resources, and improve the relevant child welfare policies and assessment mechanisms, so that we can enhance the well-being of the families with de facto unsupported children.

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Great Attention to the Influence of Marital Status on Future Collective Eldercare and Individual Eldercare in China
Shixun Gui
2024, 56 (3):  138-149.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.013
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (728KB) ( 5 )  

Since the beginning of this century, the percentage of single youth above the lawful marriage age and never-married persons has been rapidly increased in China. Factors such as young people’ reluctance to marry, the imbalance of sex ratio at birth since the middle of 1980s and infertility problems may lead to significant growth in the number of voluntarily ‘original elderly people without family’, involuntarily ‘original elderly people without family’ and ‘secondary elderly people without family’ in the future, which may exacerbate a negative effect on collective eldercare and individual eldercare. Therefore, the obligation of “the comprehensive management of the sex ratio at birth and its impact” of the Population Monitoring and Family Development Department of the National Health and Health Commission should be clearly defined, the system of “inter-ministerial joint conference on promoting family harmony and happiness” should be led by the National Health Commission as soon as possible. We also should actively guide young people in urban and rural areas to consider “age-appropriate marriage and childbearing” and encourage them to give birth to two or three children to relatively reduce from the source the proportion of “lonely elderly” in the gender and age groups of China’s elderly population in the future. At the same time, we should further study and implement the requirements of “optimizing the service for the elderly without family” proposed by the central government so as to achieve the high-quality promotion of the future construction of China’s basic eldercare system in urban and rural areas.

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The Present Status,Challenges,and Countermeasures Pertaining to the Development of Elderly Human Resources in Shanghai
Qiang Li, Wenyu Guo
2024, 56 (3):  150-163.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.014
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1025KB) ( 3 )  

“Productive engagement in later life” serves as a proactive approach to addressing the challenges of an aging population in China through strategies deeply rooted in the local context. Shanghai has a large population of the early-old aged who are well-educated and in good health. This group represents a considerable potential for the development of human resources. The population aged 60-69 has swelled from 1,151,000 in 1990 to 3,414,000 in 2020, accounting for more than 60% of elderly people. Back in 1990, only 9.6% of people aged 60-64 had received a high school education or beyond, but by 2020, this figure had soared to more than 50%. Both the life expectancy and healthy life expectancy of the elderly in Shanghai are in the leading position in the country. The remaining life expectancy of 60-year-old men has increased from 21.35 years in 1990 to 24.71 years in 2020, and the healthy life expectancy has increased from 18.55 years to 21.61 years in the meantime. However, the employment rate among the elderly has dropped from 5.45% to just 3.46%, with 296,000 working older adults in 1990 and 197,000 in 2020. Additionally, the range of their social engagement has been somewhat limited. Although the idea of “productive engagement in later life” is deeply rooted, it is still facing some difficulties in terms of social cognition, rights protection, job opportunities, and so on. Multiple measures should be taken to promote the deepening and practice of this concept. The promotion of the idea “productive engagement in later life” in the wide acceptance of the society, the establishment of a sound legal protection system, and the improvement of the diversity of participation forms constitute effective measures to activate and develop senior talent resources, and then create silver economic growth.

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How to Improve the Quality of the Service for the Elderly with Cognitive Impairment under the Mode of Intelligent Health Care Service
Renyao ZHONG, Weibo MA
2024, 56 (3):  164-174.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2024.03.015
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (740KB) ( 7 )  

As the aging process accelerates, the number of elderly people with cognitive impairment continues to rise, making the provision of high-quality, specialized care service a significant social issue. The intelligent health care, as an innovative eldercare service model, shows great potential in improving the care for and life quality of the elderly. It also offers new directions in the prevention and early screening of cognitive impairment, clinical diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation, and home care for elderly people with cognitive impairment. However, as far as intelligent health care service providers are concerned, there are still development bottlenecks such as undeveloped intelligent technology, lagging service benefits, insufficient market dynamism, inadequate exploration of deep-seated needs, lack of humanistic care, potential infringement of privacy rights, and difficulties in ensuring data security. As for the demand side, issues such as disease characteristics hindering service acceptance, economic burdens limiting consumer enthusiasm for service, and technology anxiety restraining service popularization pose challenges. In light of this, it is imperative to enhance the breadth and depth of technological and corporate innovation, deepen sharing and cooperation among multiple parties, establish industry standards and service norms, and improve regulatory and feedback mechanisms. Relevant parties should increase the security of technology to protect the rights and safety of elderly people with cognitive impairment, enhance the user-friendliness and approachability of intelligent care products, foster digital literacy among elderly people with cognitive impairment and their families, leverage the professional roles of medical and nursing staff, unlock the consumption potential of the cognitive impairment group, and stimulate the vitality of the intelligent health care market, thus accelerating the intelligent care process for elderly people with cognitive impairment in China.

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