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15 July 2022, Volume 54 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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Things,Personality and History:From “the Ship of Theseus” to “the Investigation of Things” and Others
Shao-ming CHEN
2022, 54 (4):  1-10.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.001
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (773KB) ( 6 )  

For human life, things are not just objects of material use. The philosophical discussion of “the Ship of Theseus” can lead to the various dimensions of the image of things. Among them, the image of a thing as a monument involves historical consciousness, which is related to our understanding of the unique personality of human beings on the one hand and life time on the other. The functional genealogy of things proposed by the author can provide an enlightening frame of reference for observing the debate on “the investigation of things” in Chinese philosophy. In addition, human beings have to face the unprecedented new phenomenon of the spiritual “things” since our times, which constitutes an intellectual jigsaw puzzle.

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From Being Crazily Drunk to Lying Drunk:The Evolution of Chinese Wine Spirit
Hua-nan GONG
2022, 54 (4):  11-21.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.002
Abstract ( 19 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1092KB) ( 10 )  

The phenomenon of drunkenness exists in various civilizations, and is understood, regulated and shaped by them. In China, the long history of civilization endows drunkenness with various spiritual connotations. With the continuous evolution of the intellectual trend of the times, the concept of drunkenness was formed in an intermittent manner. From the Shang and Zhou Dynasties to the Han Dynasty, being crazily drunk was a normal state, and drunkenness fell down from sacredness to pure desire and hobby. After the Han Dynasty, lying drunk became the mainstream. With the establishment of taste thought in China, drinking has become the thinking method for the drinkers, and lying drunk has become their conscious inward spiritual exploration, and the sacredness of drunkenness was restored to a certain extent. Being crazily drunk is aggressive and opposing the world, while lying drunk is a state of doing nothing and being comfortable inside and outside. Those lying drunk refuse to find their stance in the secular society, and consciously approach the quiet and tranquil world of drunkenness, which shows that their pursuit transcends the worldly life. In this process, the body is disciplined and becomes weak and feeble, so that it no longer stands or acts, and the mind is free of thinking, full of leisure and joy. The evolution towards lying drunk reveals the Chinese people’s introverted and inward-turned cultural psychology, which suppresses the impact of wine, but also makes it difficult for the drunk to be strong and upright.

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The Connotation and Transformation of the Idea of Revolution:An Investigation from the Perspective of Global Intellectual History
Xu-peng ZHANG
2022, 54 (4):  24-35.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.003
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (866KB) ( 10 )  

The idea of revolution in the European context was initially characterized by a periodic return to the past political system. In the mid-17th century, it began to have the meaning of violent political changes, gradually approaching the modern meaning of revolution. After the English Civil War, the idea of revolution became secularized when the power that dominated the revolution was no longer God, but reason and science. The outbreak of the French Revolution gave birth to a modern idea of revolution that embodied drastic changes, totality and universality. The success of the Haitian Revolution has given the idea of revolution new connotations such as anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism and anti-racism. Investigating the emergence and transformation of the idea of revolution from the perspective of temporality and spatiality, we can make it clear that modern idea of revolution is more than the product of Europe or the result of the global dissemination of European idea of revolution. It is a mixture of the idea of revolution in Europe and different local elements that affect and shape each other.

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The Idea of “the End of the Enlightenment”
Richard Watmore
2022, 54 (4):  36-43.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.004
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2047KB) ( 6 )  

In the 18th century, developing commerce became the primary strategy of all nations. In order to expand the market and increase profits, mercantile systems prevailed. Nations were at war with each other and the strong were suppressing the weak. The above facts contributed to the growth of a new empire. Accordingly, Enlightenment thinkers saw the 18th century was an age of unprecedent crisis with religious fanaticism turning into actual politics, and the failure to cope with the change led to “the end of the Enlightenment”. The sense of decline was reflected in Fran?ois Fénelon’s critique of the problems of the times, as evidenced by the William Hogarth’s print, which also deepened the feeling of catastrophe of the French Revolution. Consequently, people in the 18th century constantly attempted to plan alternative futures in systematic treatises to change the world or vague projects promising speedy social or political transformation. For example, Daniel Defoe and Benjamin Franklin offered reflections on war. The engraving of “The Times” criticized the turbulent reality in an allegorical and vivid way. Above all, ‘the end of the Enlightenment’ recreates the profound political dilemma of the late 18th century, which implies a general anxiety of the contemporary. It is important for us today to advance thinking by examining the idea of the end of the Enlightenment.

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“Diverse Life Experiments”:John S. Mill’s Thinking on Individuality
Hong-tu LI
2022, 54 (4):  44-58.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.005
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (772KB) ( 4 )  

In his work On Liberty, one of the most influential classics in the intellectual history, the nineteenth-century British thinker John S. Mill proposed the pivotal idea of “individuality”, which thereafter became the central element of the modern society, by laying the issue of individual rights within the framework of relationship between society and individual. According to Mill, individuality not only represents a way of life, but also has multiple implications, including that of “taste”. It aims at the “self-development” of each individual through his or her own choice. By virtue of Mill’s formulation, “individuality” is no longer an empty concept, but turns out to be one with rich content and specific reference. It grows from its own internal natural character instead of being given externally. Once each individual in the society has the rights to make their own choices, their “taste” and unique ways of life are safeguarded, and the progress and development of the society will be greatly promoted.

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Making a Day for Commemoration:Empire Day from a Perspective of Global Intellectual History
Lian-bi ZHU
2022, 54 (4):  59-68.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.006
Abstract ( 11 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (695KB) ( 5 )  

After the 1980s, most of the studies on commemorative days have taken a national rather than a global historical perspective. This paper highlights that it is proper and possible to include the study of commemoration days in that of global intellectual history, for the design and practice of a commemoration day reflect participants’ understanding of interacted ideas such as nation and empire. Methodologically speaking, this paper adopts the analytical tool centered on “time”, expands the approaches to the issue of “time” in the global history and takes Empire Day as the key subject, which have rarely been studied precedentially. By comparing the choosing of dates of Empire Day and its variations, this paper, as a tentative investigation from the perspective of global intellectual history, discloses reasons as well as narratives behind these choices in order to find out whether and how the ideas that commemoration days attempted to spread imposed influence.

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The Anthropological Dimension of Cultural Transfer Research
Michel Espagne
2022, 54 (4):  69-76.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.007
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (549KB) ( 5 )  

Anthropology has mostly studied the phenomenon of cultural transfer outside Europe, but its approaches and methods have also inspired the study of cultural history within Europe. For example, Evans-Pritchard’s examination of the Nuer and Dinka, and Gregory Bateson’s interpretation of the phenomenon of Naven and Schismogenese, are applicable to the study of European culture. This is partly due to the fact that early anthropology developed from the projection of inner-European phenomena, and anthropologists such as Malinowski, Franz Boas, and Leo Frobenius were all aware of the cultural transfer within Europe. In addition, both philology and art history also have their origins in cultural transfer and contribute to its methodology. Finally, anthropology has also enriched the understanding of established methods such as trilateral transfer, memory studies, and Begriffsgeschichte.

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Resolving Identity Conflict:A Humanistic Practical Method
2022, 54 (4):  77-87.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.008
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The frequent occurrence of identity conflict has obvious modernity significance. The political-and-normative narratives, however, cannot provide operational guidance to identity conflict resolution. Through the in-depth analysis of the mechanism of identity conflict, it can be found that there are obvious differences between the resolution mechanism of identity conflict and the traditional institutionalized dispute resolution method. The resolution of identity conflict requires in-depth dialogue between different people and different groups to achieve mutual understanding. In this process, dialogue and understanding are not abstract ideas, but a concrete process from conceptual words to life experience exposure, from life experience exposure to structural consciousness, and from structural consciousness to interpersonal empathy. This theory can provide operational guidance and methodology for the resolution of identity conflict and eventually provides reasonable resolution to identity conflict.

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The Dialectical Relations between Science and Technology and Humanities:On the Opposition and Complementarity between Distant Reading and Close Reading
2022, 54 (4):  88-97.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.009
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (812KB) ( 7 )  

In many people’s view, science and technology and humanities are naturally in a state of opposition, so they have a prejudice against digital humanities. There is no doubt that digital humanities, as a new research paradigm, will bring us a lot of research convenience, with which we get rid of the cumbersome data tracking and retrieval so as to save more time and energy for in-depth thinking and theoretical interpretation of the research object. For the study of world literature, the big data method can give us a general picture of the historical development of world literature in a short time, which has been proved by the distant reading method proposed by American Italian scholar Franco Moretti. Nevertheless, everything has its two sides: the application of “distant reading” method has its own strengths, but in-depth study of world literature classics and their authors should be supplemented by the close reading method. Therefore, the two methods can form a complementary relationship. In short, digital humanities do not definitely exclude humanities, especially those irreplaceable excellent literary works and humanities works with high cultural and aesthetic content created by excellent writers or scholars. Similarly, machine and AI translation cannot replace advanced literary and humanities translation. The ideal literary research should combine the methods of distant reading and close reading so as to form a complementary relationship. Effectively, there is complementarity between science and technology and humanities.

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The Development Stage of the “Metaverse” and Its Cultural Characteristics
2022, 54 (4):  98-105.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.010
Abstract ( 10 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (646KB) ( 4 )  

The discussion of the “metaverse” requires to combine its artistic imagination and technological realization, and then to consider its cultural consequences. The current stage of the “metaverse” presents a sharp contrast between artistic imagination and technological realization, for the former is rich while the latter is difficult. The primary stage of the “metaverse” is only the virtual world created by virtual reality technology; the future advanced stage is the combination of “real world” and “virtual world” (including the “mirror world” of the real world and the “simulacra world”, which is created by virtual reality technology and is not based on the real world).The primary form of the “metaverse” emphasizes the relative independence of cognition from the human body and tries to establish a “unmanned” virtual world with “no body participation”; while the advanced form of the “metaverse” proposes the human physical factor of “physical cognition” that must be fully considered in the seamless connection between the real world and the virtual world. The cognitive mode of the “metaverse” is a complex of “disembodied cognition”, “embodied cognition”, and the combination of these two. The primary stage of the “metaverse” is forming the aesthetic form of “aesthetics of isolation”, but it is opposed to the concept of the “internet of everything” in information technology. With the development of the “metaverse” to the advanced stage, its aesthetic form will also transform to open and compatible emerging “aesthetics of connection”.

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WANG Yi’s Annotation on The Songs of Chu and the Political Situation in Emperor An’s Reign
Xing-lu ZHOU
2022, 54 (4):  106-114.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.011
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (923KB) ( 1 )  

WANG Yi’s Annotation on The Songs of Chu not only laid a foundation for the study of The Songs of Chu, but was also significant in the history of literary criticism in the Han Dynasty. During Emperor An’s reign that lasted for around two decades, the political situation was messy and sycophantic. In the court, however, many ministers were brave enough to admonish the emperor severely. The imperial court encouraged political criticism. In such an atmosphere, as a collating officer, WANG Yi developed his thought while collating classic books. Different from the moderation of YANG Xiong and BAN Gu, WANG highly praised QU Yuan’s spirit of satire. The royal family in Nanyang emphasized the responsibility of protecting the country of the Han Dynasty by developing the idea that “the sons of Duke had no righteousness to leave the country” from Chuqiu Fanlu while compiling ritual propriety of the Han Dynasty. This affected WANG to elaborate for the first time on QU Yuan’s idea that people with the same surname of Chu would be not righteous to leave the country.

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The “Rivers and Lakes” Originated from the “Land of Peach Blossom”:“Rivers and Lakes” in SU Shi and SU Zhe
Gang ZHU
2022, 54 (4):  115-124.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.012
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Writings on “rivers and lakes” are integral to classical Chinese literature. In general, “rivers and lakes” refer to the place where frustrated officials were exiled. Nevertheless, poetry written by SU Shi and SU Zhe deliberately constructed “rivers and lakes” into a poetic space abounded with cultural landscape. This was quite typical among poetry in the Song Dynasty. On the one hand, the SU Brothers described “rivers and lakes” as a place where fish and birds inhabited; it was full of mountains and waters, historical sites, as well as commemorations of kinship and friendship; and it was also a poetic place imprinted with lofty noblemen and recluse scholars, folk ethos and local customs, as well as the humanist tradition. On the other hand, their political careers also reminded them that “rivers and lakes” were used by the court to banish criminals, and power networks from the capital also stretched out all over this space, so that “rivers and lakes” were not a safe haven at all. This paradoxical understanding was coherent with Song political environments and the development of transportation, communication, and commodity economy. It is worth mentioning that SU Shi proposed a poetic idea about the interconnection between “rivers and lakes” and “the land of peach blossom spring” by emphasizing that the water of “rivers and lakes” originated from “the land of peach blossom”. From “the land of peach blossom” to “rivers and lakes” extended the spirit of humanism, which was in the opposite direction of power expansion.

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What Does Handicraft Mean Today?
Gan-li XU
2022, 54 (4):  125-136.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.013
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (794KB) ( 3 )  

Most of the traditional handicrafts exist as the skills required for the manufacture of daily utensils. However, in many well-developed cities with advanced technology and large machine production, handicrafts rise suddenly, which must attribute to a profound motivation of the times. In the past, handicraft research mostly focused on the inheritance of handicraft skills from the perspective of intangible cultural heritage protection. Although the new trends in the development of handicrafts were occasionally discussed, the consumption of handicrafts by the urban new middle-class people and the rise of handicraft experience in the whole society haven’t been deeply analyzed yet. Today’s new changes in handicrafts not only reveal the huge impact of the important transformation of the current social environment in our country on traditional handicrafts, but also demonstrate the importance of handicrafts to the construction of a tasteful and subjective lifestyle for today’s Chinese people.

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The Formation and Evolution Logic of a Folk Religion Genealogy
You-wen DUAN, An-min JIA
2022, 54 (4):  137-144.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.014
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (795KB) ( 6 )  

The occurrence of folk religions has close relations with the living activities of human beings, which has features of being latent, diversified and diffused. Folk religions among Shanxi, Shaanxi and He’nan Provinces of the Yellow River Basin originate from the concepts of animism in the primitive society and root in the soil of agricultural civilization, and two main survival demands for material production and offspring breeding have contributed to a genealogy of folk religions, with beliefs for natural farming gods, deities for protecting the society, and secular Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Gods as the backbone of the system. The dangerous geographical environment of the winding Yellow River and harsh climatic conditions of long drought have generated unique beliefs in River God and Rain God. Then through links of efficacy, personification and secularization, these folk beliefs developed their evolutionary mechanism into the bottom of the hearts of people as well as every corner of their social life. During the period of social transition, the development of folk religions should strengthen the interaction of various elements of the belief system, promote folk religions to blend into various links of social structures, and play their roles of moral and ethical education for social groups, social organization integration and soft control of social orders, and ultimately highlight their endogenous forces in rural revitalization.

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Great Attention to the Influence of Appropriate Participation of the Younger-age Elderly on Healthy Aging
Shi-xun GUI
2022, 54 (4):  145-152.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.015
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (702KB) ( 5 )  

Due to the second population peak after the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, the next two decades will witness the unprecedented peak of the younger-age elderly aged 60-69 and a series of related impacts, so we will face rigorous challenges while executing the national strategy of formulating active response on population aging. However, governments at all levels and the society failed to pay great attention to important characteristics of this unprecedented peak. In this light, we should advocate the notion of “positive aging” accepted by the international society and the idea of the elderly’s “social participation”, which has been rated as the guideline of strengthening work on the aging population in the new era. More specifically, promoting the elderly’s “participation” in various ways is the main content of “positive aging” on the one hand, and appropriate participation of the elderly is good for their health on the other. Especially for the younger-age elderly, their appropriate participation will not only encourage them to contribute continually to the economic and social development, but help maintain their “functioning” as well, contributing to healthy aging in mid-21st century. So in formulating active response on population aging in “The 14th Five-Year Plan for Social and Economic Development” and “Future Targets for 2035”, it is important to include the significance of the “social participation of the elderly”, pay attention to the appropriate “participation” of the elderly and the risks of their “inadequate or excessive participation”, insist on the principle of appropriate participation which varies from person to person and supplement the main task and measures of healthy aging in future. When all departments are united to formulate plans, National Health Commission should not only retain the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Office for Aging that participated in the formulation of “The 13th Five-Year Plan for Healthy Aging”, but add the Ministry of Culture and Tourism as well.

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On the High-quality Development of the Elderly Care Service Subsidy System in Shanghai
Cui-ying YANG, Yu-ping LIU, Hao-hao LI
2022, 54 (4):  153-163.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.016
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The elderly care service subsidy system is a bottom-up system to ensure that the disabled elderly in economic difficulties obtain basic elderly care services. It is an important part of the social elderly care service system. Shanghai’s elderly care service subsidy system, as the earliest established one in China, is unique. However, with the adjustment of policy and the transformation of management mode, it has encountered many problems such as the weakening of system integrity, lack of standard adjustment mechanism, long application period, and limited scope of subsidies. High-quality development is the core theme of the new era and an important opportunity for the upgrading and transformation of the elderly care service subsidy system. It is also an inevitable requirement for the development of the times. According to the systematic analysis of the Shanghai case, the elderly care service subsidy system should follow the concept of high-quality development, clarify the system positioning, carry out top-level design under the overall framework of the elderly care service payment guarantee system, gradually expand the scope of pension service subsidies, straighten out the elderly care service subsidy application mechanism, and establish connection between the subsidy system and the long-term care insurance. In this way, the elderly care service subsidy system will be transformed into and upgraded to the combination mode of social assistance and social welfare, the vitality of the system and the role of redistribution will be enhanced, and the goal of high-quality development and equalizing basic people’s livelihood security will be achieved. The research results will also be intriguing for other provinces and cities in China.

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On the Health-related Quality of Life and Classified Social Security System of Older Adults Living Alone in Urban Community
Jian-yun WANG, Ren-yao ZHONG
2022, 54 (4):  164-174.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.04.017
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (839KB) ( 48 )  

The group of older adults living alone has become larger, more complex, and more heterogeneity, with the change of family structure, the aging of parents with only child, the increase of migration frequency and spatial distance, and the change of values. We use the data of “Survey on Older Adults Aged 70 and Above Living Alone in Urban China” to analyze the health-related quality of life among older adults living alone. We find that older adults with different family types have significant differences in health-related quality of life, such as body health, mental health, and social adaptation. One with children and the spouse has the worst quality of body health; one with children but without spouse has the worst quality of mental health; the one without children and spouse has the worst quality of social adjustment. It is suggested to establish and improve the information database of the older adults living alone in the community, and provide targeted care services and classified security in the community. The government should give older adults living alone with children and spouses some help to improve the quality of body health, such as family support program, neighborhood visits and emergency services. The government should give older adults living alone with children but without spouses some help to improve the quality of mental health, such as providing spiritual comfort, “pairing” help and psychological counsel services. The government should give older adults living alone without children and spouses some help to improve the quality of social adaptation, such as constructing harmonious neighborhoods, encouraging social participation and improving life satisfaction.

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