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15 November 2022, Volume 54 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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The Narratives of Contemporary China:Modernization,National Rejuvenation and the Establishment of Human Civilization in a New Form
Song-hua FANG
2022, 54 (6):  3-10.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.001
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Modernization, national rejuvenation and the establishment of human civilization in a new form are three major narratives in modern China. Modernization has been a core narrative of the Chinse nation since modern times, which has been developed from “Chinese learning as substance and Western learning as function” and “overall Westernization” to “socialist modernization”. The national rejuvenation, which means the establishment of China’s modern civilization, has been a key narrative since the foundation of PRC, especially since the practice of reform and opening-up. Human civilization in a new form is an innovative narrative in the new era, which goes beyond China as a nation-state and aims at a new civilization created by China in the history of human society. There are differences and tensions among these three narratives. By unifying and integrating these three major narrations, the report of the 20th National Congress of the CPC advocates Chinese modernization to comprehensively boost the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and create human civilization in a new form.

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Monumental Achievements in the Great Reform in the Past Ten Years
Wei-ping QI
2022, 54 (6):  11-16.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.002
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The 20th National Congress of the CPC speaks highly of the reform in the past ten years in the new era. The Party and the people have made extraordinary and marvelous achievements in the extraordinarily eventful environment, of which the whole party and all the people are proud. The Central Committee of the Party summarizes “three great events” that the Party and Chinese people have experienced in the past ten years in the new era, makes a historical judgment that China has marched into a new era and a new journey, and calls on the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups to work together and strive to comprehensively build a socialist modern nation and promote the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. History has turned into a new chapter. The great reform in the past ten years in the new era motivates the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups to march forward courageously, spare no effort to overcome various difficulties and challenges on the road ahead, initiate the great career and work on the new frontier through a tenacious fight. The Central Committee of the Party makes a scientific scheme for the future, strives to recreate magnificent achievements for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation and shows clearly the direction to a more marvelous chapter of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

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In Pursuit of Chinese Road to Modernization and Human Civilization in a New Form:China’s Exploration since Modern Times
Wei-ping CHEN
2022, 54 (6):  17-23.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.003
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Taking “the creation of human civilization in a new form” as “the essential requirement of Chinese modernization” in the report of the 20th National Congress of the CPC, President XI Jin-ping reveals their intrinsic link. This is the achievement of historical accumulation of exploring China’s road to modernization and human civilization in a new form since modern times. The historical logic of this exploration since modern times in China is clear. From Westernizationists to reformists and then to Revolutionaries, it shows the starting point and twists of the exploration of modernization and civilization in a new form. In other words, Chinese people began to turn to socialism in order to make China catch up with other nations in the process of learning the modernization of Western capitalism. After the May 4th Movement, CHEN Du-xiu, LI Da-zhao and MAO Ze-dong all stated that China had to realize modernization and build civilization in a new form in the framework of socialism. It was in the first leap of the sinicization of Marxism that the exploration of Chinese modernization and human civilization in a new form has been closely and substantially related to the leadership of the CPC, its historical mission, the prospect of socialism and its firm stance of the masses of people. After the foundation of PRC, the exploration of socialist modernization and civilization in a new form experienced turns and twists and eventually generated a new leap of the sinicization of Marxism in the “second combination of Marxism and China’s condition” during the two periods divided by reform and opening-up. It has integrated Chinese modernization, socialism with Chinese characteristics and human civilization in a new form into a whole.

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Enhancing the Spiritual Strength to Realize the Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation
Guo-xi GAO
2022, 54 (6):  24-29.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.004
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It is explicitly advocated in the 20th National Congress of the CPC that “we shall enhance the spiritual strength to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation”. The rejuvenation of the nation is not limited to economic development or institutional establishment, but it also includes self-confirmation of the nation, which is shown in the national spirit. Today’s competition of national power at a deep level lies in the battle of values. Guided by the scientific theory of Marxism, on which our firm belief is established, we lead the trend of the time with sinicized and modernized Marxism, build a socialist ideology with great cohesive and driving force, demonstrate the scientific and truthful advantage through the interpretational power of the theory, go beyond other intellectual trends of thought with its advanced values, and show its reality through the transformation of value into practice. With its pursuit of socialist values, Chinese modernization provides moral support to promoting the overall material progress and all-round development of individuals. Due to its significant differences from all available developing modes of civilization, Chinese modernization needs its own theoretical explanation system which should be better than all existing Western systems of knowledge. What’s more, it can provide solutions to Chinese issues and the issues of the time, and establish Chinese value, Chinese spirit, Chinese discourse and narrative system, providing spiritual power to the overall development of a modern socialist nation.

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Promoting Chinese Culture across the World through Cultural Exchanges and Mutual Learning
Li-zhi HUANG
2022, 54 (6):  30-36.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.005
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It is pointed out in the report of the 20th National Congress of the CPC that we should make Chinese culture more accessible to the world by deepening cultural exchanges and mutual learning. It means that we must observe the law of cultural exchanges and mutual learning, which is a major trend in the era of globalization. In order to have a lofty image of an advanced civilization, a nation should make its own efforts and let others appraise. The accordance of Chinese modernization and the common value of all mankind is as follows: on the one hand, it has the “common characteristics of the modernization of all nations” in the sense that China has all the technological dimension and ethic dimension shared by all other nations; on the other hand, “common prosperity for everyone”, “the coordination of material progress and cultural and intellectual progress”, “the harmony between human and nature” and “peaceful development” in Chinese modernization are China’s unique technological and ethic solutions based on its own national situations. It demonstrates the original meaning of “a broad mind like the sea embracing all rivers” to handle well the relations with foreign cultures including Western ones. Only by doing well this work can Chinese culture have a power of discourse in global affairs, which matches China’s international status, and show a dependable, gracious and respectable image of China.

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On the “Socialization” of Young Marx’s Concept of Politics
Liang SUN
2022, 54 (6):  37-45.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.006
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Based on the text of young Marx, it is not enough to conclude that Marx advocates to “depoliticize”. However, the idea that Marx believes in the eventual disappearance of politics and the state has great influence, which is mainly due to the “Hessian interpretation” of Marx in the intellectual history. Based on Spinoza’s ethics, Hess, who had a significant impact upon young Marx, held that both the state and religion were rooted in a single idea. Thus, just as criticizing religion, he also criticized the absolutism of the state and put forward the idea of abolishing politics. However, when re-entered Spinoza, we could see something different from Hess’ interpretation in Marx’s text. Effectively it embodies Spinoza’s idea: “Politics is the best fit with people’s free spirit.” However, Marx finally brings politics back to society and leads to a scheme of a socialized understanding of politics to achieve the purpose of people being able to control social existence. In this way, Marx obviously surpasses Spinoza.

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On the Contemporary Variations of Machiavelli’s “Political Dilemma”
Shi-zhong WANG
2022, 54 (6):  46-56.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.007
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The difference between the themes of Machiavelli’s The Prince and Discourses on Livyshows a “dislocation” between the “monarch” and the “people”. How to reduce this “dislocation” has always been a new “political dilemma” since modern times. Gramsci realized the possible reconciliation between the “monarch” and the “people” through the unity between “modern proletarian party” and “nation-people”. Based on political theology, Schmitt’s “sovereignty decision” re-positioned the relationship of “creating” and “maintaining” and that of “revolution” and “order”. Althusser interpreted Machiavelli’s “political dilemma” as a “revolutionary utopia”. In modern China, Machiavelli’s “political dilemma” is expressed as a “paradox” between “freedom” and the “state”. This “paradox” has constituted the keynote of the symphony of Chinese political thought over the past century, and remains as an intellectual dilemma to be overcome today.

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Let the “Self” Return:CHEN Yin-que’s “Independent Spirit” from the Academic Perspective
Zhi-tian LUO
2022, 54 (6):  57-66.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.008
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“Independent spirit and free thought” is CHEN Yin-que’s famous saying. However, it has been misunderstood for a long time, so we need to understand it from the academic perspective. At that time, it wasn’t the unique insight of CHEN, but many scholars shared the same value. The idea involves scholars’ understanding of the relationship between the academics and the “self” and the absence of “humanity” in historical research and the disappearance of the “self” in academic writings. CHEN emphasized many times that “we should keep our mind independent when we do academic work” and highlighted the subjectivity of the “self”. It implies that subjectivity and objectivity are complementary to each other and it is unnecessary to replace the former with the latter, which brought special significance to the academic environment at that time. At least at the level of academic expressions, we need to let the “self” return.

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On Cultural Preparation for War during the Third Front Movement Period
Yang ZHANG, You-wei XU
2022, 54 (6):  67-75.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.009
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Cultural preparation for war was an important part of the national war preparation plan during the Third Front Movement period. By building rear war preparation bases and relocating crucial cultural resources, lots of cultural institutions in frontline areas were prepared for a war that might break out at any time. Cultural preparation for war has rich connotations and involves a wide range of fields. There were large-scale preparations of all resources that could help promote national identity and carry forward national culture, such as cultural relics and archives, books and printing, films and radio, and universities and research institutions. Cultural preparation for war continued throughout the whole period of the Third Front Movement and reached its peak in 1965 (with the escalation of Vietnam War) and 1969 (with the incident of Zhenbao Island). Though producing no strategic resources in a state of war, it embodied the war preparation nature of the Third Front Movement. Though the war did not break out as we analyze the movement in retrospect, China’s attitude toward geopolitical crises demonstrated by its cultural preparation might have been an important deterrent.

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Unraveling the Mystery of Syntax:The Origin of Subject-Predicate Dichotomy and Component Analysis
Bao-jia LI
2022, 54 (6):  76-95.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.010
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Plato used a dichotomy to divide a sentence into its name components (ōnoma) and its declarative components (rhēma), Aristotle analyzed a proposition as the combination of a subject (hypokeimenon) and a predicate (katigoria), and Apollonius regarded nouns and verbs as the main parts of a sentence – all of these became the blueprint for the subject-predicate dichotomy in syntax. In the early 5th century, the Roman scholar Martianus proposed the dichotomy of subject (subjectiva) and predicate (declarativa), which influenced French Carolingian scholars in the 9th century. In the second half of the 8th century, the Arab scholar Sibawayhi analyzed a noun sentence into the topic and the description, and a verb sentence into the agent and the action. After that, Speculative Grammar (including Modistae) and Universal Grammar accepted subject-predicate dichotomy, but did not further refine it. Through the examination of more than a dozen works on English grammar (in the 18th and 19th centuries), Lane introduced logical subject-predicate terms into English sentence analysis for the first time (in 1700), while Greene firstly established refined English sentence components analysis (in 1848).

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The Explanation about “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó” from The Book of Songs:Also on the Composition Principle of “Consecutive Characters and Words”
Ren-er HUANG, Ren-qing CHI
2022, 54 (6):  96-104.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.011
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The explanations of “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó” from the poem “Growing old together with the gentleman” in The Book of Songs have varied from each other sinceMao’s Commentary.How to read “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó”? DAI Jun-ren uses traditional “repetition” pronunciation to read “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó”. From the angle of Chinese bronze inscriptions and bamboo slips, “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó” can be written as “Wěi = Tuó =”, if the characters have the same pronunciations. YU Sheng-wu uses “new evidences” and regards them as “compound words”, so he reads them as “Wěi Tuó Wěi Tuó”. The bamboo slips scholars in Anhui University follow YU. From the view of “consecutive characters and words”, the statement of DAI is right. “Wěi Wěi Tuó Tuó” means the bending and long pattern of mountains and rivers on the “Gown of the Queen”.

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National Security Governance Strategy in the New Era:Its System,Idea and Path
Hua-fu JIANG, Jun LIU
2022, 54 (6):  105-111.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.012
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National security governance is related to the long-term governance of the Party, the long-term stability of the country, and people’s life and work in peace and contentment. The strategic system of national security governance in the new era is a set of systematic institutional arrangements for maintaining and shaping national security, and it is the specific application of the national governance system in the field of national security. The strategic concept of national security governance in the new era is mainly reflected in the trinity of XI Jin-ping’s overall national security concept, with the purpose of people’s security, political security as the foundation, and national interests as the criterion. As for the practice path, we should adhere to safe development, promote the dynamic balance between high-quality development and high-level security, adhere to overall warfare, and coordinate traditional and non-traditional security, stick to the path of peaceful development, and promote the coordination of our own security and common security. To exactly grasp the strategy of national security governance system, follow the strategic path of national security governance system and promote national security governance in a comprehensive way is significant for us to realize the goal of the second century and achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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The Development of the Global Value Chain in East Asia and the Economic Security of China from the Perspective of Dual Circulation
Hong-zhong LIU
2022, 54 (6):  112-123.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.013
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The stable development of the Global Value Chain (GVC) is a prerequisite for and the foundation of our economic security. Under the background of shortening and regional transformation of the GVC, maintaining the stable development and transformation of the GVC in East Asia is very important for the stable development of China’s GVC and national economic security. Under the background of the Sino-US trade war and the global spread of COVID-19, there are two trends of “stable development” and “de-Sinicization” in the GVC of East Asia. This paper shows that there is a close relationship between the dual circulation economic strategy and the stable development of the GVC of East Asia. Therefore, China should accelerate the implementation of dual circulation to form a new development pattern, in which domestic economic cycle plays a leading role while domestic and international economic cycle support each other. We should enhance the ability of independent innovation and extend the value chain, and accelerate cooperation and interaction with East Asian countries to consolidate China’s position in the center of the GVC in East Asia and achieve inclusive growth of mutual benefit and win-win cooperation with East Asian countries.

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Schistosomiasis Control Campaign and Its Political Motivation Mechanism in the Early Period of New China
Cheng-pu YU, Hui LUO
2022, 54 (6):  124-135.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.014
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To protect people’s lives and health and get rid of the contempt of “sick man of East Asia”, new China launched a schistosomiasis control campaign on a grand and spectacular scale in during 1949-1956 under the complex domestic and international background. With the imagination of a series of metaphorical concepts and the establishment of social mobilization mechanism, the practice of schistosomiasis control campaign has become a significant process for the establishment of a new individual and a new country of socialism. The application of technological politics of “mass science” in the campaign established the subjectivity of the people in a socialist country. The idea of “the people as the subject” runs through the whole process of the campaign and constitutes the basic operation logic of the four major health work guidelines. The concept of “the people’s health first” and the prevention and control method with “the people as the subject” are the important political core of the success of the schistosomiasis control movement. This health campaign suggests that the current public health construction should not only renewed emphasis on the concept of “prevention first”, but also adhere to the supremacy of the people’s health and give full play to the active role of the people in health and epidemic prevention.

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The Medicinalization Process of Mental Disorder:From Chemical Imbalance of the Brain to Biological Human Beings
Jian-bo HUANG, Da LI
2022, 54 (6):  136-144.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.015
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With the development of biomedicine, mental disorder has come to the era of drug treatment. Drug therapy in the attempt to relieve human mental suffering also leads to the medicinalization of mental disorder. On the one hand, the use of psychotropic drugs solidifies the idea that mental disorder results from brain chemical imbalance, which directly or indirectly affects the path of psychiatric research and the intervention in human mental disorder, and the use of drugs has become one of the tools of clinical diagnosis of mental disorder; on the other hand, for patients and the public, drug use shapes their understandings of mental disorder, regarding mental suffering as physical suffering in a daily life. In the medicinalization of mental disorder, human mental abnormalities are placed under the framework of biomedicine, and human beings are reduced to fully biological beings. While the use of drugs can alleviate the symptoms of mental disorder, it also disciplines the perception and understanding of mental suffering and limits the development of psychiatric medicine and other possibilities for recognizing and intervening in human mental disorder.

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Remaking Body in a Changing World:Aesthetic Plastic Surgery as Techniques of the Body
Jing-wen FANG
2022, 54 (6):  145-152.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.016
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (748KB) ( 0 )  

The aestheticization of the body extends aesthetics to the field of technology and thus strengthens the necessity of the aesthetic transformation of the body; while the medicalization of aesthetics extends medicine to the aesthetic scope and provides the technical possibility for the aesthetic transformation of the body. The combination of these two trends makes aesthetic plastic surgery an important technology for body modification. With unattainable aesthetic standards presented by a perfect body image and constantly changing body aesthetic trends, the aestheticization of the body makes the medical intervention through aesthetic plastic surgery natural and reasonable. The potential health risks and aesthetic risks of aesthetic plastic surgery as an invasive surgery may lead to new demands for body modification and consequently makes the project continue. It’s worth pointing out that, in a rapidly changing social context, remaking body through aesthetic plastic surgery might not be the end of change, since it is probably instrumental for a life change.

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Structural Monetary Policy,Uncertainty of Economic Environment and Interest Rate Transmission Efficiency
Xian-cang FANG, Kang HE, Wei-feng ZHANG
2022, 54 (6):  153-165.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.017
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1154KB) ( 2 )  

Using the micro-data of the bond market, this paper takes advantage of a double difference model to examine the impact of the implementation of structural monetary policy on the transmission efficiency of short-term interest rates in the money market to bond interest rates, bringing the uncertainty of the economic environment into the unified analysis framework. The results show that the implementation of structural monetary policy makes the transmission efficiency of short-term interest rates in the money market to bond interest rates increase, while the uncertainty of the economic environment significantly inhibits this efficiency. The joint effect test found that the uncertainty of the economic environment weakens the positive impact brought by the structural monetary policy, making the sensitivity of bond interest rates to short-term interest rates in the money market decrease. Robustness test and parallel trend test confirm the reliability of the above conclusions. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the above conclusion is valid only for bonds listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and with a modified duration of 2 years or less.

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The Impact of Digital Service Trade Barriers on Quality Upgrading of Manufacturing Exports
Shi-teng XU, Ling JIN, Ling-yu CAI, Chun-juan QIU
2022, 54 (6):  166-174.  doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5579.2022.06.018
Abstract ( 9 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (749KB) ( 4 )  

It hasn’t been systematically examined whether and how digital service trade barriers have an impact on the quality upgrade of China’s manufacturing exports. Based on the technical relationship between the intermediate input of upstream digital services and the output of downstream manufacturing, this paper calculates the country-manufacturing industry-level digital service trade restriction index, and then makes an empirical analysis of the above issues. The results show that the increase of digital service trade barriers has a significant inhibitory effect on the quality upgrade of China’s manufacturing exports, and the negative effects of increased restrictive measures in the fields of facilities and connections, payment systems are particularly significant. The impact of digital service trade barriers is heterogeneous across countries and industries, that is, there is an inhibitory effect mainly on the quality of exports of developed countries on the one hand, and capital-intensive and labor-intensive manufacturing exports on the other. Further analysis shows that the increase in FDI and R&D can weaken the negative impact of digital service trade barriers on the quality upgrade of China’s manufacturing exports. At the same time, the higher the quality of China's manufacturing exports, the stronger the negative effect of digital service trade barriers. Therefore, to promote high-quality development of China’s foreign trade, China should make great efforts to reduce global digital service trade barriers, increase the R&D of digital technology in the manufacturing industry, and improve FDI policies related to the digital industry.

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