华东师范大学(哲学社会科学版) ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (5): 114-123.doi:

• 宗教学研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

居士佛教的近代转型及其社会学意义
 ——以民国上海居士佛教为例

唐忠毛   

  1. 华东师范大学宗教与社会研究中心, 上海, 200241
  • 出版日期:2012-09-15 发布日期:2012-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 唐忠毛
  • 作者简介:唐忠毛:上海宗教学会理事?先后毕业于南京大学哲学系宗教学专业(硕士学位)、华东师范大学哲学系中国哲学专业(博士学位)、复旦大学历史地理研究所(博士后)?1999年至今先后工作于华东师范大学法政学院、华东师范大学学报编辑部、华东师大觉群佛教文化研究所、华东师范大学社会科学部。
  • 基金资助:

    本文为国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD117)的阶段性成果

Transformation of lay Buddhism in Modern Times and Its Sociological Significance: A Case Study on Lay Buddhism in Shanghai in the Republic of China (1912—1949)

TANG Zhong-Mao   

  • Online:2012-09-15 Published:2012-11-05
  • Contact: TANG Zhong-Mao
  • About author: TANG Zhong-Mao

摘要: 居士佛教是近代中国佛教复兴运动的发起者与主力军。相对于传统居士佛教,近代居士佛教在其核心成员构成、组织结构以及社会功能等方面均已产生了明显的转型。就近代居士佛教的核心群体来看,大量的新兴工商业者与新型知识分子对佛教产生兴趣,他们分别以居士、学者、思想家,甚至革命家的身份进行佛学研究与佛教信仰实践,并将佛教带向现实社会生活之中。就组织形态与社会功能来看,近代居士佛教已经摆脱了依赖寺院并由僧人主导的传统组织形态,开始建立起独立于僧团之外的自身组织形式,并开始参与讲经说法、皈戒修持、研究传播,以及广泛地开展各种形态的社会慈善事业。因此,抛开单纯的观念史与佛学义理研读,从社会学视域中去审视近代居士佛教的组织形态、核心成员结构及其社会功能之变,不仅有助于我们考察近代居士佛教发展的全貌,亦可藉此透视近代居士佛教转型背后的深层社会背景,并由此加深理解近代佛学思想的“形上义理”与“形下社会实态”之间的交互影响。

关键词: 居士佛教, 近代转型, 核心成员, 组织结构, 社会功能

Abstract: Lay Buddhism is the motivator and main force of the revitalization movement of Buddhism in modern China. Compared to traditional lay Buddhism, modern lay Buddhism has transformed in aspects such as its core members, organizational structure and social function. In respect of the core groups of modern lay Buddhism, massive people engaged in the newly developing industry and commerce and new intellectuals are interested and committed themselves in Buddhism study and belief practice. As lay Buddhists, scholars, thinkers and even revolutionists, they conduct Buddhism study and bring Buddhism to actual social life. In respect of organization form and social function, modern lay Buddhism has extricated itself from the traditional form of organization, which was dependent on temples and led by Buddhist monks. Lay Buddhists in modern times start to build their own form of organization independent of Buddhist monks, and conduct sermons and practices of proclaiming somebody as a Buddhist and Buddhist disciplines, study and preach, and wide-ranging social charity in various forms on their own. Therefore, in addition to theoretical studies of Buddhist doctrines and intellectual history, a sociological examination of the transformation of the organization form, core members and social function of lay Buddhism from the perspective, will help us not only inspect the complete picture of the development of modern lay Buddhism, but also understand thoroughly the social background in depth behind the transformation of modern lay Buddhism and the basic features of its rational proceeding. In this way, we can deepen our understanding of the interaction between “metaphysical theories” and “physical social conditions” in modern Buddhism.

Key words: lay Buddhism, the transformation in modern times, core members, organizational structure, social function