华东师范大学(哲学社会科学版) ›› 2011, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (1): 103-112.doi:

• 中国近代史研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

科举、功名与清末民初知识人社会

沈洁   

  1. 上海社会科学院历史研究所,上海,200235
  • 收稿日期:1900-01-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 沈洁

Imperial Examination System, the GongMing concept and Society of Knowledge People in Near-Modern China

Shen jie   

  1. Institute of History, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Shanghai 200001
  • Received:1900-01-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-01-25
  • Contact: Shen jie

摘要: 在科举时代,功名与身份、利禄、仕途攸关,因此,循科举求功名,就成了千百年来士人齐集、梦寐以求的“正途”。士人汲汲于功名,由此形成的功名意识不仅主宰士人命运的悲欢,而且渗透、弥散到整个社会,积久成为一种集体无意识。这种由科举衍生而来的功名意识,甚至到了1905年科举废除之后,在士人与社会中依然广有市场,并没有因科举的废除而发生根本性的动摇,科举、功名在士人的心目中仍居于无可替代的中心位置,具有别样的魔力。以致于1905年清政府在宣布废除科举的同时又推出一系列学堂奖励政策。即使到了民国时代,这种意识也并没有完全褪尽。本文即以科举废除前后功名意识的流变为中心,一方面着力还原由废科事件引发的清末民初知识人社会的多重面相,以及功名意识在士人与社会中的长久影响;另一方面透过功名意识的流转呈现近代中国制度变革所面临的纷繁复杂的难局和困境。

关键词: 科举, 功名意识, 清末民初, 知识人社会

Abstract: The Imperial Examination System was the most important approach to Identity, Fortune and Prospect for the intellectuals in the history of traditional China. The GongMing concept dominated the fate of the intellectuals and derived its effect to the entire community, which turned into a kind of collective unconsciousness. The GongMing concept had a broad impact even after 1905 when the Imperial Examination System was abolished. For this reason, the Imperial Government developed the system of awarding degrees, which guaranteed the continuation of the incentive economy. The GongMing concept had a lasting influence in the Times of the Republic of China. Based on the diversification of the GongMing concept, this paper analyses the multiple aspect of Society of Knowledge People in Near-Modern China and its long-standing affect. By means of depicting the vicissitude of the GongMing concept, the paper goes on to explain the complex history of knowledge transition and the dilemma of institutional change in modern China.

Key words: the Imperial Examination System, the GongMing concept, Society of Knowledge People, the Near-Modern China